Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.527, No.1, 257-263, 2020
Critical role of PP2A-B56 family protein degradation in HIV-1 Vif mediated G2 cell cycle arrest
HIV-1 Vif forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with host proteins to counteract host restrictive APOBEC3, and is also known to accumulate infected cells at the G2 phase to promote viral replication. However, the underlying mechanism of how Vif induces G2 arrest is not fully understood, and more specifically, direct target molecules of G2 arrest have not been identified. Here we show that degradation of B56 family proteins (PP2A-B56), one of the regulatory subunits of protein phosphatase 2A, is critical for the Vif-induced G2 arrest. NL4-3 Vif caused degradation of PP2A-B56, and complementation of PP2A-B56 overcome the Vif-induced arrest. Supportively, knockdown of PPP2R5D, one of PP2A-B56, by siRNA itself induced cell cycle arrest of non-infected cells. We also identified Vif residues I31 and R or K33 are determinants for inducing G2 arrest, and Vif variants that did not cause G2 arrest did not induce PPP2R5D degradation, although it maintain the ability to induce APOBEC3G degradation, showing strong correlation between Vif-induced arrest and PP2A-B56 degradation. In a sequence database of HIV-1 isolates, Vif strains harboring residues that presumably induce cell cycle arrest are approximately 43%, suggesting Vif-induced G2 arrest contributes to HIV-1 infection in vivo and spread. Our data help understand the mechanism of Vif-mediated arrest, and gain insights into general cell cycle regulation. (c) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.