Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.528, No.3, 594-600, 2020
Identification of Gliotoxin isolated from marine fungus as a new pyruvate kinase M2 inhibitor
Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) functions as an important rate-limiting enzyme of aerobic glycolysis that is involved in tumor initiation and progression. However, there are few studies on effective PKM2 inhibitors. Gliotoxin is a marine-derived fungal secondary metabolite with multiple biological activities, including immunosuppression, cytotoxicity, and et al. In this study, we found that Gliotoxin directly bound to PKM2 and inhibited its glycolytic activity in a dose-dependent manner accompanied by the decreases in glucose consumption and lactate production in the human glioma cell line U87. Moreover, Gliotoxin suppressed tyrosine kinase activity of PKM2, leading to a dramatic reduction in Stat3 phosphorylation in U87 cells. Furthermore, Gliotoxin suppressed cell viability in U87 cells, and cytotoxicity of Gliotoxin on U87 cells was obviously augmented under hypoxia condition compared to normal condition. Finally, Gliotoxin was demonstrated to induce cell apoptosis of U87 cells and synergize with temozolomide. Our findings identify Gliotoxin as a new PKM2 inhibitor with anti-tumor activity, which lays the foundation for the development of Gliotoxin as a promising anti-tumor drug in the future. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.