Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.529, No.3, 608-614, 2020
The involvement of cytokine-like 1 (Cytl1) in chondrogenesis and cartilage metabolism
The Cytokine-like 1 (Cytl1) is first identified in bone marrow cells and preferentially expressed in cartilaginous tissue, and showed chondrogenic effects in mesenchymal cells, not essential for cartilage or bone development as in Cytl1 knock-out mice but associated with cartilage inflammatory and destruction. Here, we show the involvement of Cytl1 in chondrogenesis. Using specified chondrogenic embryonic skeleton and adult cartilage, the Cytl1 gene expression was investigated with associated chondrogenic factors by quantitative RT-PCR. The effect of Cytl1 protein (rCytl1) on cultured chondrocytes to regulate expression of key factors and phenotypic markers was studied. The results revealed that Cytl1 was highly expressed in chondrogenic process in embryos and adult cartilage. The rCytl1 increased the expression of Sox9 and Col2 alpha 1 with stabilized Col1 alpha 1 in cultured chondrocytes (redifferentiation). The Cytl1 was expressed and involved at all stages of cartilage development. Furthermore, Cytl1 expression shared similar patterns as other chondrogenic factors, implying interactions with other factors in chondrogenic process. Cytl1 is involved in cartilage development and matrix homeostasis, which defines the dedifferentiation phenotype of chondrocytes, essential to forming of functional cartilage in both physiologic remodeling and pathologic regeneration. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.