Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.104, No.4, 1785-1793, 2020
Development and evaluation of a gp85 protein-based subgroup-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of anti-subgroup J avian leukosis virus antibodies
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an important pathogen for various neoplasms and causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry. Serological detection of specific antibodies against ALV-J infection is important for successful clinical diagnosis. Here, a 293F stable cell line was established to stably express gp85 protein. In this cell line, gp85 protein was expressed at approximately 30 mg/L. A subgroup-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) was developed using ALV-J gp85 protein as coated antigen to detect antibodies against ALV-J. The sensitivity of the iELISA (1:51200 diluted in serum) was 16 times more than that of indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA; 1:3200 diluted in serum). Moreover, there was no crossreactivity with antibodies against other common avian viruses and other avian leukosis virus subgroups, such as subgroups A and B. The practicality of the iELISA was further evaluated by experimental infection and clinical samples. The results from experimental infection indicated that anti-ALV-J antibodies were readily detected by iELISA as early as 4 weeks after ALV-J infection, and positive antibodies were detected until 20 weeks, with an antibody-positive rate of 11.1% to 33.3%. Moreover, analysis of clinical samples showed that 9.49% of samples were positive for anti-ALV-J antibodies, and the concordance rate of iELISA and IFA was 99.24%. Overall, these results suggested that the subgroup-specific iELISA developed in this study had good sensitivity, specificity, and feasibility. This iELISA will be very useful for epidemiological surveillance, diagnosis, and eradication of ALV-J in poultry farms.