Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.104, No.5, 1837-1847, 2020
Diverse and common features of trehalases and their contributions to microbial trehalose metabolism
Trehalose is a stable disaccharide that consists of two glucose units linked primarily by an alpha,alpha-(1 -> 1)-linkage, and it has been found in a wide variety of organisms. In these organisms, trehalose functions not only as a source of carbon energy but also as a protector against various stress conditions. In addition, this disaccharide is attractive for use in a wide range of applications due to its bioactivities. In trehalose metabolism, direct trehalose-hydrolyzing enzymes are known as trehalases, which have been reported for bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, and are classified into glycoside hydrolase 37 (GH37), GH65, and GH15 families according to the Carbohydrate-Active enZyme (CAZy) database. The catalytic domains (CDs) of these enzymes commonly share (alpha/alpha)(6)-barrel structures and have two amino acid residues, Asp and/or Glu, that function as catalytic residues in an inverting mechanism. In this review, I focus on diverse and common features of trehalases within different GH families and their contributions to microbial trehalose metabolism.