Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol.88, 148-158, August, 2020
Renewable malic acid-based plasticizers for both PVC and PLA polymers
Acetylated malic acid alkyl esters (AcMAE-Cn) with different alkyl chain lengths, as alternative plasticizers for both poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA), were synthesized by the esterification of renewable malic acid with alcohols and subsequent acetylation. The molecular structure of the synthesized plasticizers was confirmed using 1H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. PVC or PLA blends containing 50 phr of the plasticizers were evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), tensile testing, and migration testing to evaluate the plasticization efficiency. The plasticized PVC films presented good plasticizing performance, as demonstrated by the results of tensile and migration testing and the Tg values (as determined by DMA). Among the plasticizers, AcMAE-C6 and AcMAE-C8 presented enhanced plasticizing performance compared with that of the commercial dioctyl adipate (DOA) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) plasticizers. Additionally, the plasticizing properties of the plasticized PLA films depend significantly on the structure of the plasticizers. It was found that plasticizers (AcMAEC4 and AcMAE-C6) bearing short alkyl groups (n-butyl and n-hexyl, respectively) may act as excellent plasticizers. In summary, the AcMAE-C6 plasticizer showed potential as an alternative plasticizer for both PVC and PLA polymers.
Keywords:Malic acid alkyl esters;Plasticizers;Renewable resources;Poly(vinyl chloride);Poly(lactic acid)
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