Science, Vol.367, No.6480, 869-+, 2020
Pulmonary surfactant-biomimetic nanoparticles potentiate heterosubtypic influenza immunity
Current influenza vaccines only confer protection against homologous viruses. We synthesized pulmonary surfactant (PS)-biomimetic liposomes encapsulating 2',3'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP), an agonist of the interferon gene inducer STING (stimulator of interferon genes). The adjuvant (PS-GAMP) vigorously augmented influenza vaccine-induced humoral and CD8(+) T cell immune responses in mice by simulating the early phase of viral infection without concomitant excess inflammation. Two days after intranasal immunization with PS-GAMP-adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine, strong cross-protection was elicited against distant H1N1 and heterosubtypic H3N2, H5N1, and H7N9 viruses for at least 6 months while maintaining lung-resident memory CD8(+) T cells. Adjuvanticity was then validated in ferrets. When alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) lacked Sting or gap junctions were blocked, PS-GAMP-mediated adjuvanticity was substantially abrogated in vivo. Thus, AECs play a pivotal role in configuring heterosubtypic immunity.