Process Safety and Environmental Protection, Vol.134, 217-225, 2020
Research-scale three-phase jet foam generator design and foaming condition optimization based on Box-Behnken design
Three-phase foam, namely surfactant-particle stabilized foam is a promising material in pool fire extinguishment. However, its effectiveness has not been validated. In this study, a research-scale three-phase jet foam generator, which allowed adjustments of foam slurry composition, nozzle type, air flow rate and screen aperture, was developed. In order to optimize the foaming condition, a three-factor three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) was adopted. Fly ash (FA) particles were used as the solid phase to generate three-phase foams. As a result, the FA supported foam exhibited better stability over conventional fire-fighting foam, especially when the particle concentration exceeded a threshold value. In addition, the BBD results presented a good agreement between experimental data and fitted models. The optimal foaming condition was determined by numerical optimization. Small-scale fire extinguishing experiments were carried out and three-phase foam manifested better burnback performance compared to conventional fire-fighting foam. The design in this work can be used to study the firefighting efficiency of different three-phase foams and serve as a prototype to develop better generators for both lab research and practical application. (C) 2019 Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.