Langmuir, Vol.36, No.15, 4055-4064, 2020
Effects of Kinetic Dielectric Decrement on Ion Diffusion and Capacitance in Electrochemical Systems
Diffusion of ionic components in electrolytes not only eliminates the gradients of ionic concentrations but also alters the local dielectric environment, and the coupling effect between kinetic dielectric decrement and ionic concentration gradient on the diffusion dynamics is not well understood. Herein, taking the charging process in electrical double layer systems as a case study, we conduct a multiscale investigation of ion diffusions in aqueous electrolytes by combining the dynamic density functional theory and an ion-concentration-dependent dielectric constant model. By properly considering the time evolutions of local dielectric constant coupled with ion density, we report an interesting phenomenon on the suppression of surface charge density that is not captured by conventional models. In addition, we show that the usage of aqueous electrolyte with small dielectric decrement coefficients promotes the capacitance, in quantitative agreement with experimental measurements.