Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol.142, No.6, 3013-3023, 2020
Genome Mining Reveals High Topological Diversity of omega-Ester-Containing Peptides and Divergent Evolution of ATP-Grasp Macrocyclases
omega-Ester-containing peptides (OEPs) are a family of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) containing intramolecular omega-ester or omega-amide bonds. Although their distinct side-to-side connections may create considerable topological diversity of multicyclic peptides, it is largely unknown how diverse ring patterns have been developed in nature. Here, using genome mining of biosynthetic enzymes of OEPs, we identified genes encoding nine new groups of putative OEPs with novel core consensus sequences, disclosing a total of similar to 1500 candidate OEPs in 12 groups. Connectivity analysis revealed that OEPs from three different groups contain novel tricyclic structures, one of which has a distinct biosynthetic pathway where a single ATP-grasp enzyme produces both omega-ester and omega-amide linkages. Analysis of the enzyme cross-reactivity showed that, while enzymes are promiscuous to nonconserved regions of the core peptide, they have high specificity to the cognate core consensus sequence, suggesting that the enzyme-core pair has coevolved to create a unique ring topology within the same group and has sufficiently diversified across different groups. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the diverse ring topologies, in addition to diverse sequences, have been developed in nature with multiple omega-ester or omega-amide linkages in the OEP family of RiPPs.