International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol.45, No.13, 7584-7615, 2020
Review on the interface engineering in the carbonaceous titania for the improved photocatalytic hydrogen production
Hydrogen is the prime source of energy with enormous attention in the current research development process as it is safe, clean, eco-friendly, and can be produced from renewable resources through simple catalytic reactions. Scalable production of hydrogen through photocatalysis has been achieved using carbon-modified semiconductors since 2009. In this direction, this review delivers comprehensive understandings into the interface and structural interactions between TiO2 and carbonaceous materials such as carbon, carbon nanotubes, graphene, activated carbon, graphitic carbon nitride, carbon quantum dots, etc., and their influences toward improving the hydrogen generation activity of these systems. Besides, recently developed carbonaceous materials such as 3-D graphene, carbon nanohorns, and carbon nanocones have also been discussed on their character in the photocatalytic water splitting procedure. In general, the observed improvements in this carbon-modified TiO2 attributed to the synergetic effects, which offer the active migration of charge carriers and reduced recombination rates in the photocatalyst. Finally, highlighting the future perspectives of the carbonaceous materials in photocatalytic applications are concluded. (C) 2019 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.