Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.522, No.3, 592-598, 2020
Metabolic effects of repeated ketamine administration in the rat brain
Ketamine is a popular recreational drug used in club and dance music settings. Evidence suggests that chronic or repeated ketamine use could induce neurological and psychological harm, while the mechanisms underlying ketamine's effects on the nervous system are still unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the metabolic changes that occur in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (Hip) and striatum of rats with repeated ketamine exposure and withdrawal intervention and to identify the potential metabolic pathways influenced by ketamine. An untargeted ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS)-based metabolomics method coupled with multivariate and univariate statistical analysis was applied to analyze the metabolic profiles of the PFC, Hip, and striatum and to identify metabolite alterations. The pathway analysis tool in Metabo-Analyst was subsequently applied for pathway predictions. A total of 79, 54 and 58 changed metabolites were identified in the PFC, Hip and striatum, respectively, after repeated ketamine exposure. Pathway analysis indicated that purine metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolism were the main pathways disturbed by ketamine in all three brain regions. After one week of withdrawal intervention, most changed metabolites in the Hip and striatum had been restored to control levels, while the metabolite alterations in the PFC were persistent. These results revealed that repeated ketamine exposure significantly changed purine metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolism in the PFC, Hip and striatum, which might be involved in the neurotoxic effects of ketamine. Additionally, this study also identified that the PFC, rather than the Hip or striatum, was more likely to be the target region of the long-term effects of ketamine. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.