Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.522, No.4, 939-944, 2020
Formation of SUMO3-conjugated chains of MAVS induced by poly(dA:dT), a ligand of RIG-I, enhances the aggregation of MAVS that drives the secretion of interferon-beta in human keratinocytes
The retinoic-acid inducible gene (RIG)-I is a cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor that senses single-stranded (ss) or double-stranded (ds) RNA. RIG-I also senses AT-rich dsDNA, poly(dA:dT), through the action of an RNA polymerase III-transcribed RNA intermediate. Upon the binding of an RNA ligand, RIG-I binds to the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) and induces the formation of filamentous aggregates of MAVS, leading to the formation of a signaling complex that drives Type I interferon (IFN) responses. In the current study, we investigated the issue of whether the SUMOylation of MAVS induced by poly(dA:dT) affects the aggregation of MAVS in the RIG-I/MAVS pathway in human keratinocytes. Our results show that the poly(dA:dT)-induced secretion of IFN-beta was dependent on RIG-I and MAVS. The inhibition of SUMOylation by Ginkgolic acid or Ubc9 siRNA was found to inhibit the poly(dA:dT)-induced secretion of IFN-beta, suggesting that the SUMOylation is required for the poly(dA:dT)-activated RIG-I/MAVS pathway, which drives the secretion of IFN-beta. In addition, treatment with poly(dA:dT) enhanced the formation of polymeric chains of small-ubiquitin like modifiers (SUMO)3, but not SUMO1 and SUMO2, on MAVS. Our results also show that the conjugation of SUMO3 to MAVS induced by poly (dA:dT) enhanced the aggregation of MAVS. These collective results show that the formation of SUMO3-conjugated chains of MAVS induced by poly (dA:dT), a ligand of RIG-I, enhances the aggregation of MAVS which, in turn, drives the secretion of IFN-beta in human keratinocytes. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.