Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.523, No.3, 588-594, 2020
The role of actinin-4 (ACTN4) in exosomes as a potential novel therapeutic target in castration-resistant prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the United States. Several novel therapeutic agents have been developed for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), but the prognosis for patients with CRPC remains poor. The identification of novel therapeutic targets for CRPC is an urgent issue. Exosomes are small vesicles secreted by a variety of cells, and exosomes derived from cancer cells have been reported to circulate in the patient's bodily fluids, promoting metastasis and invasion. We aimed to identify novel therapeutic targets for CRPC by proteomic analysis of serum exosomes. Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation of sera from 36 men with metastatic prostate cancer: untreated (n = 8), well-controlled with primary androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) (n = 8), and CRPC (n = 20). We identified 823 proteins in the serum exosomes. Six proteins were increased in CRPC patients compared with untreated patients. In contrast, only ACTN4 was increased in the CRPC patients compared to the ADT patients. We focused on ACTN4 as a candidate for targeted therapeutics. ACTN4 was highly expressed in the prostate cancer cell line DU145 as well as exosomes from this line. RNA interference-mediated downregulation of ACTN4 significantly attenuated cell proliferation and invasion in DU145 cells. ACTN4 could be a potential therapeutic target for CRPC. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.