Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.525, No.1, 208-215, 2020
Microglial Hv1 exacerbates secondary damage after spinal cord injury in mice
The pathological process of spinal cord injury (SCI) is complex, particularly during secondary damage that triggers a multiphasic glial reaction consisting of both detrimental and beneficial effects. Deletion of a novel voltage-gated proton channel (Hv1) functionally expressed in microglia has been shown to confer neuroprotection during ischemic stroke. Here, we hypothesized that microglial Hv1 may also participate in the process of SCI through modulating glial responses. To test this hypothesis, we employed an SCI model in Hv1-knockout (Hv1(-/-)) and wild type (WT) mice and assessed resulting microglial polarization, accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, astrocytic activation, oligodendrocytic apoptosis, lesion sizes, and demyelinated areas. Compared with post-SCI results in WT mice, post-SCI Hv1(-/-) mice exhibited an M2-dominant microglial polarization, decreased accumulation of microglia, and reduced production of pro-inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). Additionally, Hv1(-/-) mice had significantly attenuated reactive astrogliosis and reduced expression of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) after SCI. Furthermore, Hv1 deficiency reduced SCI-induced oligodendrocytic apoptosis, demyelinated areas, and cavity formation. Collectively, our results provide the first evidence suggesting that microglial Hv1 may be a multi-mechanism therapeutic target for the treatment of SCI. (c) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.