Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.525, No.1, 80-86, 2020
1 alpha, 25(OH)(2)D-3 regulates agrin-induced acetylcholine receptor clustering through upregulation of rapsyn expression in C2C12 myotubes
The active form of vitamin D (1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 [1 alpha, 25(OH)(2)D-3], referred to as 1,25D) has been suggested to play a pivotal role in skeletal muscle function and metabolism. However, the mechanisms through which 1,25D functions in this tissue remain to be elucidated. Recent studies have shown that vitamin D signaling regulates neuromuscular maintenance and improves locomotion in mice. In the present study, we examined the effects of 1,25D on neuromuscular synaptogenesis by measuring clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in C2C12 myotubes. 1,25D treatment enhanced the agrin-induced AChR clustering in myotubes compared to treatment with agrin alone. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) decreased the agrin-induced AChR clustering. 1,25D increased the expression of rapsyn, which is necessary for AChR clustering, while demonstrating no effect on other neuromuscular junction-related genes. In addition, rapsyn expression was dependent on 1,25D-VDR signaling. These results suggest that 1,25D-VDR signaling may regulate rapsin expression, resulting in the up-regulation of agrin-induced AChR clustering. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.