Advanced Powder Technology, Vol.31, No.2, 702-707, 2020
Improved photochromic stability in less deficient cesium tungsten bronze nanoparticles
Hexagonal cesium tungsten bronze (Cs0.32WO3) nanoparticles are well known as near-infrared (NIR) shielding materials. However, one of the critical issues for industrial applications involves a photochromic instability, i.e., a blue color change of this material under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. This color change is attributed to the formation of HxWO3 phase through doping of H+ ions into Cs-deficient sites present at the surface of Cs0.32WO3 nanoparticles. Therefore, a new approach was adopted to prevent the color change by synthesizing a Cs0.32WO3 nanoparticle with less Cs-deficient sites using spray pyrolysis followed by heat treatment and short-time milling. The Cs0.32WO3 nanoparticles of spray pyrolysis route exhibited an improved photochromic stability under UV irradiation compared to those synthesized through a solid-state-reaction route. Detailed analysis using atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that the Cs0.32WO3 nanoparticles of spray pyrolysis route retain Cs ions up to a depth of less than 1 nm from the surface. This work demonstrates that the less-Cs-deficient Cs0.32WO3 nanoparticles are beneficial to improve the photochromic stability. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Society of Powder Technology Japan.