Renewable Energy, Vol.145, 2530-2537, 2020
Synthesis of quality biodiesel from Calophyllum inophyllum kernels through reactive extraction method: Optimization of process parameters and characterization of the products
Oil extraction from kernels requires an appreciable amount of energy that could be decreased when the purpose of this oil is to produce biodiesel by intensifying the oil extraction and transesterification steps. The qualities of biodiesels obtained from Calophyllum inophyllum oilseeds resulting from variation in the seeds drying process under optimized conditions in an in situ acid catalyzed transesterification of the oil using n-hexane and methanol was evaluated in the present study. Oils of freshly pulverised seeds that were dried under different conditions were used for biodiesel productions through extractive reaction method. The drying process/condition is observed to have influenced the quantity and quality of the biodiesel obtained with parameters such as the free fatty acids (FFA) content, cloud and pour points of the oil considerably affected. Biodiesel from oven-dried kernels at 75 degrees C and 105 degrees C without removal of their husks met both ASTM and EN specifications. The study concluded that the optimized conditions adopted yielded biodiesel of very high quality from Calophyllum inophyllum seeds that could serve as a better non-edible oil substitute for biodiesel fuels production. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.