Renewable Energy, Vol.146, 2589-2625, 2020
A survey on smart grid technologies and applications
The Smart Grid is an advanced digital two-way power flow power system capable of self-healing, adaptive, resilient and sustainable with foresight for prediction under different uncertainties. In this paper, a survey on various Smart Grid enabling technologies, Smart Grid metering and communication, cloud computing in Smart Grid and Smart Grid applications are explored in detail. Opportunities and future of Smart Grid is also described in this paper. For Smart grid enabling technologies Smart meters, smart sensors, vehicle to grid, plug in hybrid electric vehicle technology, sensor and actuator networks are explored. Advanced metering infrastructure, intelligent electronic devices, phasor measurement units, wide area measurement systems, local area network, home access network, neighborhood area network, wide area networks and cloud computing are explored for Smart Grid metering and communication. Home and building automation, smart substation, feeder automation is explored for smart grid applications. Associations of initial studies for the next step in smart grid applications will provide an economic benefit for the authorities in the long term, and will help to establish standards to be compatible with every application so that all smart grid applications can be coordinated under the control of the same authorities. Therefore, this study is expected to be an important guiding source for researchers and engineers studying the smart grid. It also helps transmission and distribution system operators to follow the right path as they are transforming their classical grids to smart grids. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.