Renewable Energy, Vol.147, 2801-2808, 2020
Shallow geothermal energy under the microscope: Social, economic, and institutional aspects
The design and operation of Shallow Geothermal Energy (SGE) systems have been continuously increasing in scientific research over the past years. What hinders the wide penetration of SGE systems in most countries are issues mostly related to high installation costs, administration, stakeholders' awareness, and marketing. On top of this, SGE systems lack an in-depth economic evaluation, which is often limited to the financial inputs, and thus omitting the non-market monetized environmental benefits. This paper consists of a primer for conceptually improving understanding in regions with low levels of SGE penetration. It provides guidance to project evaluation and discusses the social and institutional strategies to assist SGE systems penetration. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.