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Fuel, Vol.264, 2020
Effect of temperature on multiple competitive processes for co-production of carbon nanotubes and hydrogen during catalytic reforming of toluene
The effects of reaction temperature (range from 500 degrees C to 800 degrees C) on multiple competitive processes were studied for the co-production of hydrogen and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during catalytic reforming of toluene over Ni/alpha-Al2O3. With the temperature raising from 500 to 800 degrees C, H-2 yield increased by 7 times while H-2 proportion slightly decreased 5 vol% due to the competitive effect between steam reforming and reverse water-gas shift (WGS) reaction. Coke amounts (including amorphous carbon and CNTs) firstly increased and then decreased, which was determined by the competitive rate of formation and consumption reaction. Detailed characterization indicated the yield and quality of CNTs improved with the temperature increasing from 500 to 650 degrees C and reached the maximum at 650 degrees C, resulting from the enhancing transformation from amorphous to CNTs and consumption of amorphous carbon by steam. However, the growth of CNTs was suppressed by further increasing temperature, and almost no CNTs were generated at 800 degrees C. The higher temperature aggravated the sintering of Ni and enlarged their particle size, which was not conduced to CNTs growth.