Energy & Fuels, Vol.34, No.1, 579-586, 2020
Oxyfunctionalization of Turpentine for Fuel Applications
beta-Pinene and paraformaldehyde can be activated over catalyst to preferentially produce nopol. Tin supported over MCM-41 has shown high activity in this reaction, achieving complete conversion of pure beta-pinene and high selectivity toward nopol (>96%) with a key role of solvents such as toluene and ethyl acetate. In this work, the Prins reaction was performed with turpentine as beta-pinene source, avoiding the use of solvents and reaching complete conversion of beta-pinene and high selectivity toward nopol (>99%). In this case, alpha-pinene, which is a component of turpentine, can play the role of solvent. Besides, alpha-terpineol is also a product of the reaction, probably due to the hydration of limonene and alpha-pinene. The reaction was scaled-up to produce up to 3.5 L of oxyturpentine (oxyfunctionalized turpentine) with promising results. Sn-MCM-41 catalyst was synthesized by the hydrothermal method at room temperature, providing an easy scale-up of the process. On the basis of the high performance of the production reaction of oxyturpentine, it is a promising biofuel, although a complete assessment of its properties and performance in engine tests is pending.