Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.518, No.3, 560-564, 2019
Germacrone alleviates collagen-induced arthritis via regulating Th1/Th2 balance and NF-kappa B activation
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease. The imbalance of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 immune responses contributes to the pathogenesis of this disease. Germacrone is a major bioactive component isolated from Rhizoma Curcuma with multiple bioactivities including anti-inflammation. However, the role and mechanism of germacrone in RA are still unknown. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model was established in male DBA/1J mice by two immunizations with chicken collagen II. Germacrone was orally administered once per day starting on the day of second immunization for 3 weeks. Arthritis scoring was evaluated every 3 days after second immunization. H&E staining was used for histopathological examination. Levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-4 in serum and synovial tissues of mice were detected by ELISA. Th1 and Th2 cell percentage in mouse spleens was analyzed by flow cytometry. I kappa B and phosphorylation of NF-kappa B p65 (p-p65) expression in mouse synovial tissues was assayed by Western blot. We found germacrone treatment significantly reduced arthritis score and inflammation in CIA mice. Levels of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were elevated, and IL-4 reduced, in the serum and synovial tissues of CIA mice. Germacrone partially reversed levels of these cytokines. Moreover, germacrone decreased the ratio of Th1 to Th2 cells in mouse spleens. Additionally, germacrone remarkably enhanced I kappa B expression, but suppressed p-p65 level in CIA mice. Taken together, these results suggest that germacrone alleviated the progression of arthritis that might be related to the regulation of Th1/Th2 balance and inactivation of NF-kappa B pathway. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.