Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.518, No.3, 519-525, 2019
Induction of ferroptosis by singlet oxygen generated from naphthalene endoperoxide
Singlet oxygen causes a cytotoxic process in tumor cells in photodynamic therapy (PDT) and skin photoaging. The mechanism responsible for this cytotoxicity is, however, not fully understood. 1-Methylnaphthalene-4-propionate endoperoxide (MNPE) is a cell-permeable endoperoxide that generates pure singlet oxygen. We previously reported that cell death induced by MNPE did not show the typical profile of apoptosis, and the cause of this cell death remains elusive. We report herein on an investigation of the mechanism for MNPE-induced cell death from the view point of ferroptosis. The findings indicate that the MNPE treatment decreased the viabilities of mouse hepatoma Hepa 1-6 cells in vitro, and that this decrease was accompanied by increases in the concentrations of both intracellular ferrous iron and the level of lipid peroxidation, but that the caspase-mediated apoptotic pathway was not activated. The intracellular levels of cysteine and glutathione were not affected by the MNPE treatment. Importantly, an assay of lactate dehydrogenase activity revealed that the cell death caused by MNPE was suppressed by ferrostatin-1, a ferroptosis-specific inhibitor. Collectively, these results strongly indicate that ferroptosis is the main cell death pathway induced by singlet oxygen. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.