Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.518, No.3, 459-464, 2019
Synergistic fungicidal activity with low doses of eugenol and amphotericin B against Candida albicans
Candida albicans frequently causes variety of superficial and invasive disseminated infections in HIV infected patients. Further, the emergence of non albicans species causing candidiasis predominantly in patients with advanced immune-suppression and drug resistance brings great apprehension. Hence, in this study we evaluate the capability of eugenol (EUG), a natural compound in combination with less toxic concentrations of amphotericin B (AmpB) for enhanced antifungal effects and reduced toxicity. Antifungal activity and time-kill assay were employed according to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines with minor modifications on clinical isolates of Candida albicans. To confirm the synergistic interaction of EUG and AmpB, checkerboard experiments were employed. Interestingly, EUGAmp B combination shows many fold higher anti-candida activity compared to single component treatment. Furthermore, our results depicts reactive oxygen species (ROS) driven killing and mitochondria) hyperpolarisation on treatment. Our data also suggests inhibition of calcium channel by EUG and predicts longer retainment of AmpB. Pronounced cellular damage was observed with combination treatment than to EUG and AmpB alone. Our finding is helpful for the removal of toxic concentrations of antifungal agents. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.