Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.519, No.4, 887-893, 2019
Induction of apoptosis and differentiation by Na/H exchanger 1 modulation in acute myeloid leukemia cells
We investigated the effect of the modulation of Na/H exchanger 1 (NHE1) on apoptosis, differentiation, and chemoresistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells to evaluate the possibility of NHE1 modulation as a novel therapeutic strategy for AML. The pHi of leukemia cell lines except KG1a was higher than that of normal bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM MNCs). Notably, in K562, cytarabine (AraC)-resistant OCI-AML2, and primary leukemia cells, pHi was significantly higher than that of normal BM MNCs. Western blotting and real-time quantitative PCR confirmed that the increased NHE1 expression was responsible for the higher pHi. Specifically, compared to CD34(+)CD38(+) leukemia cells, the mean fluorescence intensity of NHE1 was significantly higher in CD34(+)CD38(-) leukemic stem cells. The out of range in pHi by treatment with an NHE inhibitor, the amiloride analogue 5-(N,N-hexamethylene) amiloride (HMA), or an NHE activator, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), resulted in dose- and time-dependent inhibition of leukemia cell proliferation. PMA induced CD14(+) differentiation of leukemia cells, whereas HMA induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. HMA could induce apoptosis of leukemia cells even in AraC-resistant cells and showed an additive effect on apoptosis in AraC-sensitive cells. Our result revealed that AML cells prefer more alkalic intracellular moiety than normal BM MNCs following increased NHE1 expression and that NHE1 modulation can induce apoptosis and differentiation of AML cells. These findings imply that NHE1 is a potential target in cytotoxic or differentiation-induction treatment for AML. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.