Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.520, No.2, 459-465, 2019
Fenofibrate induces PPAR alpha and BMP2 expression to stimulate osteoblast differentiation
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha agonist fenofibrate is used as a lipid-lowering agent to reduce cholesterol and triglyceride in blood. In this study, we investigated whether fenofibrate affects osteoblast differentiation of osteogenic precursor cells. Quantitative real-time PCR and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining assays revealed that fenofibrate can enhance the osteoblast differentiation of C3H10T1/2 and MC3T3-E1 cells. In contrast with fenofibrate, the PPAR gamma agonist rosiglitazone decreased or did not affect the expression of osteogenic genes in these cells. Fenofibrate dose- and time-dependently increased PPAR alpha expression, and concomitantly increased the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). Knockdown of PPAR alpha abolished fenofibrate-induced BMP2 expression, activity of the BMP2 promoter gene, and calcium deposition. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that fenofibrate increased BMP2 expression by inducing direct binding of PPAR alpha to the BMP2 promoter region. Taken together, we suggest that fenofibrate has a stimulatory effect on osteoblast differentiation via the elevation of PPAR alpha levels and the PPAR alpha-mediated BMP2 expression. Our findings provide fenofibrate as a useful agent for controlling hypercholesterolemic patients with osteoporosis. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.