Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.521, No.4, 1077-1082, 2020
Identification of nucleoporin 93 (Nup93) that mediates antiviral innate immune responses
RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) are cytoplasmic sensors for viral RNA that elicit antiviral innate immune responses. RLR signaling culminates in the activation of the protein kinase TBK1, which mediates phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 that regulates expression of type I interferon genes. Here, we found that Nucleoporin 93 (Nup93), components of nuclear pore complex (NPC), plays an important role in RLR-mediated antiviral responses. Nup93-deficient RAW264.7 macrophage cells exhibited decreased expression of Ifnbl and Cxcl10 genes after treatment with a synthetic RLR agonist stimulation as well as Newcastle Disease Virus infection. Silencing Nup93 in murine primary macrophages and embryonic fibroblasts also resulted in reduced expression of these genes. IRF3 nuclear translocation during RLR signaling was impaired in Nup93-deficient RAW264.7 cells. Notably, the activation of TBK1 during RLR signaling was also decreased in Nup93-deficient cells. We found that Nup93 formed a complex with TBK1, and Nup93 overexpression enhanced TBK1-mediated IFN beta promoter activation. Taken together, our findings suggest that Nup93 regulates antiviral innate immunity by enhancing TBK1 activity and IRF3 nuclear translocation. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.