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Applied Surface Science, Vol.499, 2020
Indocyanine green modified silica shells for colon tumor marking
Marking colon tumors for surgery is normally done with the use of India ink. However, non-fluorescent dyes such as India ink cannot be imaged below the tissue surface and there is evidence for physiological complications such as abscess, intestinal perforation and inconsistency of dye injection. A novel infrared marker was developed using FDA approved indocyanine green (ICG) dye and ultrathin hollow silica nanoshells (ICG/HSS). Using a positively charged amine linker, ICG was non-covalently adsorbed onto the nanoparticle surface. For ultra-thin wall 100 nm diameter silica shells, a bimodal ICG layer of < 3 nm is was formed. Conversely, for thicker walls on 2 mu m diameter silica shells, the ICG layer was only bound to the outer surface and was 6 nm thick. In vitro testing of fluorescent emission showed the particles with the thinner coating were considerably more efficient, which is consistent with self-quenching reducing emission shown in the thicker ICG coatings. Ex-vivo testing showed that ICG bound to the 100 nm hollow silica shells was visible even under 1.5 cm of tissue. In vivo experiments showed that there was no diffusion of the ICG/nanoparticle marker in tissue and it remained imageable for as long as 12 days.