Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.104, No.2, 455-473, 2020
Emerging technologies for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for bio-based products
Exploring a cheap and clean renewable energy has become a common destination round the world with the depletion of oil resources and the concerns of increasing energy demands. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant renewable resource in the biosphere, and the total biomass formed by plant photosynthesis reached more than 200 billion tons every year. Cellulase and hemicellulose and lignin degradation enzymes, the efficient biocatalyst, could efficiently convert the lignocellulosic biomass into sugars that could be further processed into biofuels, biochemical, and biomaterial for human requirement. The utilization and conversion of cellulosic biomass has great significance to solve the problems such as environmental pollution and energy crisis. Lignocellulosic materials are widely considered as important sources to produce sugar streams that can be fermented into ethanol and other organic chemicals. Pretreatment is a necessary step to overcome its intrinsic recalcitrant nature prior to the production of important biomaterial that has been investigated for nearly 200 years. Emerging research has focused in order of economical, eco-friendly, and time-effective solutions, for large-scale operational approach. These new mentioned technologies are promising for lignocellulosic biomass degradation in a huge scale biorefinery. This review article has briefly explained the emerging technologies especially the consolidated bioprocessing, chemistry, and physical base pretreatment and their importance in the valorization of lignocellulosic biomass conversion.