Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.104, No.2, 775-783, 2020
The intestinal bacterial community of healthy and diseased animals and its association with the aquaculture environment
Although increasing levels of attention have been targeted towards aquaculture-associated bacteria, the bacterial community of animal intestines and its relationship with the aquaculture environment need to be further investigated. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze the bacterial community of pond water, sediment, and the intestines of diseased and healthy animals. Our data showed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant taxa of bacteria across all samples and accounted for more than 90% of the total sequence. Difference analysis and Venn diagrams showed that most of the intestinal bacterial OTUs (operational taxonomic units) of diseased and healthy animals were the same as those of sediment and water, indicating that the aquaculture environment was the main source of intestinal bacteria. Compared with healthy animals, a considerable reduction of OTUs was evident in diseased animals. Welch's t test showed that the dominant bacterial taxa in sediment, water, and animal intestine were significantly different (p < 0.05) and each had its own unique dominant microorganisms. In addition, differences between the intestinal bacteria of healthy and diseased animals were represented by potential probiotics and pathogens, such as Bacillus, Vibrio, Oceanobacillus, and Lactococcus. Principal component analysis (PcoA) showed that a similar environment shaped a similar microbial structure. There was a large difference in the spectrum of intestinal bacteria in diseased animals; furthermore, the spectrum of intestinal bacteria in diseased animals was very different from the environment than in healthy animals. This study provides a theoretical basis for a relationship between the intestinal bacteria of healthy and diseased animals and the environment and provides guidance for environmental regulation and disease prevention in aquaculture areas.