Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.104, No.1, 351-363, 2020
BabA and LPS inhibitors against Helicobacter pylori: pectins and pectin-like rhamnogalacturonans as adhesion blockers
The first step in the development of Helicobacter pylori pathogenicity is receptor-mediated adhesion to gastric epithelium. Adhesins of H. pylori not only enable colonisation of the epithelium, with BabA interacting with Lewis(b), but also interaction of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with galectin-3 contributes to attachment of H. pylori to the host cells. Anti-adhesive compounds against H. pylori have been described, but specific analytical assays for pinpointing the interaction with BabA are limited. LPS-galectin-3 inhibitors have not been described until now. A sandwich ELISA with recombinant BabA(547)-6K was developed to investigate the interaction of BabAwith Lewis(b)-HSA. Isothermal titration calorimetry gave thermodynamic information on the interaction between BabA, Lewis(b)-HSA and anti-adhesive compounds. A highly esterified rhamnogalacturonan from Abelmoschus esculentus inhibited the adhesion of H. pylori to adherent gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells (IC50 550 mu g/mL) and interacted with BabA (IC50 17 mu g/mL). Pectins with similar rhamnogalacturonan structure showed weak antiadhesive activity. Highly branched rhamnogalacturonans with low uronic acid content and high degree of esterification are potent BabA inhibitors. BabA represents a promising target for the development of anti-adhesive drugs against H. pylori. The rhamnogalacturonan influenced also the binding affinity of H. pylori to recombinant galectin-3 in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 222 mu g/mL. Similar effects were obtained with pectin from apple fruits, while pectins from other sources were inactive.