Solar Energy, Vol.188, 1292-1297, 2019
Effect of additives in electrode paste of p-type crystalline Si solar cells on potential-induced degradation
Sodium (Na) and lithium (Li) in the silver (Ag) paste cause the potential-induced degradation (PID), while the PID of p-type crystalline silicon (Si) photovoltaic modules is caused by Na in the front cover glass. Some Ag pastes contain these elements to control the firing properties in solar cells fabrication. In order to eliminate the effect of Na and other elements in the front cover glass on PID, PID tests for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules without front cover glass and using cells with various electrode pastes of controlled additive contents were performed. When the Ag paste with Na is used, the shunt resistance decreases and the PID occurs. This phenomenon is similar to that induced by Na in the front cover glass, but, it requires the shorter time duration as compared with the case of Na in the front cover glass. In addition, it is found that Li in the paste also causes the PID equivalent to that by Na in the paste.