International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol.44, No.40, 22519-22526, 2019
Effect of bundle geometries on the detonation velocity behaviors in stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture
In this study, the effects of pipe bundle geometries on the detonation velocity behaviors are examined systematically in a circular tube with 6 m long and an inner diameter of 90 mm. The tube bundle structures are created by inserting several small pipes (20 mm outer diameter, 2 mm wall thickness) into the tube. Three different bundle structures can be obtained by varying the number of small pipes n of 3, 4 and 5. The ionization probes and pressure transducers (PCB102B06) are used to determine the average velocity while the smoked foil technique is employed to register the detonation cellular structures. The experimental results indicate that detonation can propagate at about the theoretical CJ velocity with a small deficit when the initial pressure (P-0) is greater than the critical value (P-c). The average velocity gradually decreases and deviates from the CJ value as the approaches of critical condition by gradually decreasing the initial pressure. The failure of detonation can be observed below the critical pressure. In the smooth tube, three different propagation mechanisms can be observed, i.e., super-critical condition, critical condition and sub-critical condition. After the bundle structures are introduced into the tube, a sudden velocity drop is seen at the critical pressure. Moreover, the detonation re-initiation phenomenon occurs with the velocity from the flame back to over-driven state quickly. Of note is that nearly no difference is seen between n = 3 and 4. However, in the case of n = 5, the detonation velocity experiences a more violent fluctuation with a high frequency, and the critical pressure is also increased to 28 kPa sharply. Finally, the critical condition analysis of detonation successful transmission is performed. The critical condition can be quantified as D-H/lambda > 1. However, the critical values of D-H/lambda are not uniform among various bundle geometries, but in a small range, i.e., from 1.52 to 1.97. (C) 2019 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.