Biomacromolecules, Vol.20, No.10, 3798-3808, 2019
Synthesis and Properties of Functional Glycomimetics through Click Grafting of Fucose onto Chondroitin Sulfates
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS), a representative marine polysaccharide isolated from sea cucumber, possesses diverse biological functions especially as a promising anticoagulant. However, its supply suffers from the challenges of high-cost materials, different species, and batch-to-batch variability. In the present study, we designed a concise route for the synthesis of functional glycomimetics by natural fCS as a template. 4-(4,6-Dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride-mediated amidation was applied on chondroitin sulfates for site-selective alkynylation with controllable ratios between 0.15 and 0.78. A small library of 12 fCS glycomimetics with specific sulfation patterns and fucose branches was prepared through copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition, which was fully characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography with multiangle light scattering and refractive index. Through screening of their biological activities, CSE-F1 and CSE-SF1 exhibited anticoagulant activities through intrinsic pathway and inhibition of factor Xa by antithrombin III. The concise approach developed herein supplies novel glycopolymers to mimic the distinct functions of natural polysaccharides and promote the development of marine carbohydrate-based drugs.