Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.516, No.4, 1097-1102, 2019
Changes in acetyl-CoA mediate Sik3-induced maturation of chondrocytes in endochondral bone formation
The maturation of chondrocytes is strictly regulated for proper endochondral bone formation. Although recent studies have revealed that intracellular metabolic processes regulate the proliferation and differentiation of cells, little is known about how changes in metabolite levels regulate chondrocyte maturation. To identify the metabolites which regulate chondrocyte maturation, we performed a metabolome analysis on chondrocytes of Sik3 knockout mice, in which chondrocyte maturation is delayed, Among the metabolites, acetyl-CoA was decreased in this model. Immunohistochemical analysis of the Sik3 knockout chondrocytes indicated that the expression levels of phospho-pyruvate dehydrogenase (phospho-Pdh), an inactivated form of Pdh, which is an enzyme that converts pyruvate to acetylCoA, and of Pdh kinase 4 (Pdk4), which phosphorylates Pdh, were increased. Inhibition of Pdh by treatment with CPI613 delayed chondrocyte maturation in metatarsal primordial cartilage in organ culture. These results collectively suggest that decreasing the acetyl-CoA level is a cause and not result of the delayed chondrocyte maturation. Sik3 appears to increase the acetyl-CoA level by decreasing the expression level of Pdk4. Blocking ATP synthesis in the TCA cycle by treatment with rotenone also delayed chondrocyte maturation in metatarsal primordial cartilage in organ culture, suggesting the possibility that depriving acetyl-CoA as a substrate for the TCA cycle is responsible for the delayed maturation. Our finding of acetyl-CoA as a regulator of chondrocyte maturation could contribute to understanding the regulatory mechanisms controlling endochondral bone formation by metabolites. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.