Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.103, No.17, 6973-6987, 2019
Optimization and characterization of red pigment production from an endophytic fungus, Nigrospora aurantiaca CMU-ZY2045, and its potential source of natural dye for use in textile dyeing
Some of the most important natural pigments have been produced from fungi and used for coloring in food, cosmetics, textiles, and pharmaceutical products. Forty-seven isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from Cinnamomum zeylanicum in northern Thailand. Only one isolate, CMU-ZY2045, produced an extracellularly red pigment. This isolate was identified as Nigrospora aurantiaca based on morphological characteristics and the molecular phylogenetic analysis of a combined four loci (large subunit and internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA, beta-tubulin, and translation elongation factor 1-alpha genes). The optimum conditions for red pigment production from this fungus were investigated. The results indicated that the highest red pigment yield was observed in the liquid medium containing glucose as a carbon source and yeast extract as a nitrogen source, at a pH value of 5.0 and at 27 degrees C with shaking for 5 days. The crude red pigment revealed the highest level of solubility in methanol. A fungal red pigment was found to have high stability at temperatures ranging from 20 to 50 degrees C and pH values at a range of 5.0-6.0. Based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, the red pigment was characterized as bostrycin. The extracted pigment was used for the textile dyeing process. Crude fungal red pigment revealed the highest staining ability in cotton fabrics and displayed excellent fastness to washing, which showing negative cytotoxicity at the concentrations used to cell culture. This is the first report on bostrycin production from N. aurantiaca.