Langmuir, Vol.35, No.25, 8220-8227, 2019
Interactions and Reductive Reactivity in Ternary Mixtures of Fe(II), Goethite, and Phthalic Acid Based on a Combined Experimental and Modeling Approach
The interactions between organic ligands, Fe(II), and iron oxides are important in biogeochemical redox processes. The effect of phthalic acid (PHA) on the reductive reactivity of Fe(II) associated with goethite was examined using batch adsorption and kinetic studies, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and surface complexation modeling (SCM). PHA significantly inhibited the reductive reactivity of Fe(II)/goethite, as quantified by the pseudo-first-order reduction rate constants (k) of p-cyanonitrobenzene. The k value decreased from 1.68 +/- 0.03 to 0.338 +/- 0.14 h(-1) at pH 6.0 as the PHA concentration increased from 0 to 1000 mu M. The effects of the co-adsorption of Fe(II) and PHA onto goethite were then investigated to study the inhibition mechanism. The adsorption experiments showed that Fe(II) slightly enhanced PHA adsorption, whereas PHA did not affect Fe(II) adsorption, suggesting that the inhibition was not due to different amounts of Fe(II) adsorbed. The ATR FTIR spectra of the adsorbed PHA in the ternary mixtures demonstrated that the major surface species was outer-sphere species, with minor inner-sphere complexes formed. SCM results showed that the presence of PHA (L) led to the formation of a type A ternary species (( FeOFe+)(2) L2-) on the goethite surface, decreasing the abundance of the reactive species (equivalent to FeOFeOH)(.) Moreover, the adsorption of PHA on the surface of goethite might block the reactive sites and inhibit the electron transfer between Fe(II) and goethite, thus decreasing the reactivity. Overall, these findings provided new insights into the reaction mechanisms of surface-adsorbed Fe(II), which will facilitate the development of new technologies for site remediation and more accurate risk assessment.