Enzyme and Microbial Technology, Vol.128, 72-78, 2019
Production of glutaric acid from 5-aminovaleric acid by robust whole-cell immobilized with polyvinyl alcohol and polyethylene glycol
Glutaric acid is an attractive C5 dicarboxylic acid with wide applications in the biochemical industry. Glutaric acid can be produced by fermentation and bioconversion, and several of its biosynthesis pathways have been well characterized, especially the simple pathway involving glutaric acid from L-lysine using 5-aminovaleric acid. We previously reported the production of glutaric acid using 5-aminovaleric acid and alpha-ketoglutaric acid by a whole-cell reaction, resulting in a high conversion yield. In this study, we sought to enhance the stability and reusability of this whole-cell system for realizing the efficient production of glutaric acid under harsh reaction conditions. To this end, various matrices were screened to immobilize Escherichia coli whole-cell over-expressing 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GabT), succinate semi-aldehyde dehydrogenase (GabD), and NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX). We ultimately selected a PVA-PEG gel (LentiKats (R)) for cell entrapment, and several factors of the reaction were optimized. The optimal temperature and pH were 35 degrees C and 8.5, respectively. Treatment with Tween 80 as a surfactant, as well as additional NOX, was found to be effective. Under the optimized conditions, an immobilized cell retained 55% of its initial activity even after the eighth cycle, achieving 995.2 mM accumulated glutaric acid, whereas free cell lost most of their activity after only two cycles. This optimized whole-cell system can be used in the large-scale production of glutaric acid.