Current Applied Physics, Vol.19, No.10, 1076-1081, 2019
The visible and ultraviolet organic light-emitting diodes with germanium dioxide as facile solution-processed anode buffer layer
Germanium dioxide (GeO2) aqueous solutions are facilely prepared and the corresponding anode buffer layers (ABLs) with solution process are demonstrated. Atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that solution-processed GeO2 behaves superior film morphology and enhanced work function. Using GeO2 as ABL of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), the visible device with tris(8-hydroxy-quinolinato) aluminium as emitter gives maximum luminous efficiency of 6.5 cd/A and power efficiency of 3.5 lm/W, the ultraviolet device with 3-(4-biphenyl)-4-phenyl-5-tert-butylphenyl-1,2,4-triazole as emitter exhibits short-wavelength emission with peak of 376 nm, full-width at halfmaximum of 42 nm, maximum radiance of 3.36 mW/cm(2) and external quantum efficiency of 1.5%. The performances are almost comparable to the counterparts with poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate) as ABL. The current, impedance, phase and capacitance as a function of voltage characteristics elucidate that the GeO2 ABL formed from appropriate concentration of GeO2 aqueous solution favors hole injection enhancement and accordingly promoting device performance.