Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.514, No.2, 524-529, 2019
Mechanotransduction of mitochondrial AMPK and its distinct role in flow-induced breast cancer cell migration
The biophysical microenvironment of the tumor site has significant impact on breast cancer progression and metastasis. The importance of altered mechanotransduction in cancerous tissue has been documented, yet its role in the regulation of cellular metabolism and the potential link-between cellular energy and cell migration remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of mechanotransduction in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in breast cancer cells in response to interstitial fluid flow (IFF). Additionally, we explored the involvement of AMPK in breast cancer cell migration. IFF was applied to the 3D cell-matrix construct. The subcellular signaling activity of Src, FAK, and AMPK was visualized in real-time using fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET). We observed that breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) are more sensitive to IFF than normal epithelial cells (MCF-10A). AMPK was activated at the mitochondria of MDA-MB-231 cells by IFF, but not in other subcellular compartments (i.e., cytosol, plasma membrane, and nucleus). The inhibition of FAK or Src abolished flow-induced AMPK activation in the mitochondria of MDA-MB-231 cells. We also observed that global AMPK activation reduced MDA-MB-231 cell migration. Interestingly, specific AMPK inhibition in the mitochondria reduced cell migration and blocked flow-induced cell migration. Our results suggest the linkage of FAK/Src and mitochondria-specific AMPK in mechanotransduction and the differential role of AMPK in breast cancer cell migration depending on its subcellular compartment-specific activation. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.