Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.515, No.3, 481-486, 2019
Artificial immunoglobulin light chain with potential to associate with a wide variety of immunoglobulin heavy chains
Immunoglobulins play important roles in antigen recognition during the immune response, and the complementarity-determining region (CDR) 3 of the heavy chain is considered as the critical antigen-binding site. We previously developed a statistical protocol for the extensive analysis of heavy chain variable region repertoires and the dynamics of their immune response using next-generation sequencing (NGS). The properties of important antibody heavy chains predicted in silico by the protocol were examined by gene synthesis and antibody protein expression; however, the corresponding light chain that matches with the heavy chain could not be predicted by our protocol. To understand the dynamics of the heavy chain and the effect of light chain pairing on it, we firstly tried to obtain an artificial light chain that pairs with a broad range of heavy chains and then analyzed its effect on the antigen binding of heavy chains upon pairing. During the pre-B cell stage, the surrogate light chain (SLC) could pair with the nascent immunoglobulin mu heavy chains (Ig-mu H) and promote them to function in the periphery. On the basis of this property, we designed several versions of genetically engineered "common light chain" prototypes by modifying the SLC structure. Among them, the mouse-derived VpreB1 lambda 5C kappa light chain showed acceptable matching property with several different heavy chains without losing specificity of the original heavy chains, though the antigen affinities were variable. The extent of matching depended on the heavy chain; surprisingly, a specific heavy chain (IGHV9-3) could match with two different conventional V kappa s (IGKV3-2*01 and IGKV10-96*01) without losing the antigen affinities, whereas another heavy chain (IGHVI-72) completely lost its antigen affinities by the same matching. Thus, the results suggested that the antigen recognition of the heavy chain is variably affected by the paired light chain, and that the artificial light chain, Mm_VpreB1 lambda 5C kappa, has the potential to be a "common light chain", providing a novel system to analyze the effects of light chains in antigen recognition of heavy chains. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.