Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.516, No.1, 270-277, 2019
Bardoxolone treatment alleviates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury through suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress regulated by Nrf2 signaling
Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays critical roles in attenuating various inflammation and oxidative stress-induced diseases, including acute lung injury (ALI). Bardoxolone (Bard), a synthetic triterpenoid based on natural product oleanolic acid, is one of the most potent Nrf2 activator. However, if Bard could prevent lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI by inducing Nrf2 activation and its down streaming signals, is still poorly understood. In this study, we attempted to explore the protective effect of Bard on ALI and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results indicated that Bard significantly attenuated ALI through reducing the lung wet/dry weight ratio and protein concentration, neutrophil infiltration, malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels, and improving superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) activities. In addition, Bard effectively ameliorated histopathological alterations, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, pro-inflammatory cytokines release, and the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and high mobility group box I (HMGB1). Moreover, the inhibitory role of Bard in inflammation was also attributed to its suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) signaling. Furthermore, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling, including p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (INK), induced by LPS was substantially ameliorated by Bard. The beneficial effects of Bard on ALI were confirmed in LPS-incubated cells in vitro. Meanwhile, the in vitro studies also demonstrated that Bard-improved ALI was largely due to its role in inducing Nrf2 signaling through a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, we found that Bard-attenuated histological changes, inflammation, ROS production, NF-kappa B and MAPKs signaling in Nrf2(+/+) mice were significantly abolished in mice with Nrf2 knockout. Therefore, our study for the first time provided evidence that Bard could effectively ameliorate LPS-induced ALI by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation mainly through the activation of Nrf2 signaling. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier Inc.