Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.103, No.12, 4649-4677, 2019
LncRNAs with miRNAs in regulation of gastric, liver, and colorectal cancers: updates in recent years
Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is a kind of RNAi molecule composed of hundreds to thousands of nucleotides. There are several major types of functional lncRNAs which participate in some important cellular pathways. LncRNA-RNA interaction controls mRNA translation and degradation or serves as a microRNA (miRNA) sponge for silencing. LncRNA-protein interaction regulates protein activity in transcriptional activation and silencing. LncRNA guide, decoy, and scaffold regulate transcription regulators of enhancer or repressor region of the coding genes for alteration of expression. LncRNA plays a role in cellular responses including the following activities: regulation of chromatin structural modification and gene expression for epigenetic and cell function control, promotion of hematopoiesis and maturation of immunity, cell programming in stem cell and somatic cell development, modulation of pathogen infection, switching glycolysis and lipid metabolism, and initiation of autoimmune diseases. LncRNA, together with miRNA, are considered the critical elements in cancer development. It has been demonstrated that tumorigenesis could be driven by homeostatic imbalance of lncRNA/miRNA/cancer regulatory factors resulting in biochemical and physiological alterations inside the cells. Cancer-driven lncRNAs with other cellular RNAs, epigenetic modulators, or protein effectors may change gene expression level and affect the viability, immortality, and motility of the cells that facilitate cancer cell cycle rearrangement, angiogenesis, proliferation, and metastasis. Molecular medicine will be the future trend for development. LncRNA/miRNA could be one of the potential candidates in this category. Continuous studies in lncRNA functional discrepancy between cancer cells and normal cells and regional and rational genetic differences of lncRNA profiles are critical for clinical research which is beneficial for clinical practice.