Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.103, No.14, 5463-5482, 2019
Recent achievements in the generation of stable genome alterations/mutations in species of the genus Streptomyces
The bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are the most valuable source of natural products of industrial and medical importance. A recent explosion of Streptomyces genome sequence data has revealed the enormous genetic potential of new biologically active compounds, although many of them are silent under laboratory conditions. Efficient and stable manipulation of the genome is necessary to induce their production. Comprehensive studies in the past have led to a large and versatile collection of molecular biology tools for gene manipulation of Streptomyces, including various replicative plasmids. However, biotechnological applications of these bacteria require stable genome alterations/mutations. To accomplish such stable genome editing, two major strategies for streptomycetes have been developed: (1) integration into the chromosome through Att/Int site-specific integration systems based on Streptomyces actinophages (phi C31, phi BT1, VWB, TG1, SV1, R4, phi Joe, 1/6) or pSAM2 integrative plasmid; (2) integration by homologous recombination using suicidal non-replicating vectors. The present review is an attempt to provide a comprehensive summary of both approaches for stable genomic engineering and to outline recent advances in these strategies, such as CRISPR/Cas9, which have successfully manipulated Streptomyces strains to improve their biotechnological properties and increase production of natural or new gene-manipulated biologically active compounds.