Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.103, No.15, 6041-6059, 2019
Strategies for gene disruption and expression in filamentous fungi
Filamentous fungi can produce many valuable secondary metabolites; among these fungi, endophytic fungi play an ecological role in mutualistic symbiosis with plants, including promoting plant growth, disease resistance, and stress resistance. However, the biosynthesis of most secondary metabolites remains unclear, and knowledge of the interaction mechanisms between endophytes and plants is still limited, especially for some novel fungi, due to the lack of genetic manipulation tools for novel species. Herein, we review the newly discovered strategies of gene disruption, such as the CRISPR-Cas9 system, the site-specific recombination Cre/loxP system, and the I-SceI endonuclease-mediated system in filamentous fungi. Gene expression systems contain using integration of target genes into the genome, host-dependent expression cassette construction depending on the host, a host-independent, universal expression system independent of the host, and reporter-guided gene expression for filamentous fungi. Furthermore, the Newly CRISPRi, CRISPRa, and the selection markers were also discussed for gene disruption and gene expression were also discussed. These studies lay the foundation for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in these organisms and aid in understanding the ecological function of filamentous fungi.