Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.103, No.16, 6423-6434, 2019
Multi-level regulation of coelimycin synthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)
Despite being a yellow pigment visible to the human eye, coelimycin (CPK) remained to be an undiscovered secondary metabolite for over 50years of Streptomyces research. Although the function of this polyketide is still unclear, we now know that its cryptic nature is attributed to a very complex and precise mechanism of cpk gene cluster regulation in the model actinomycete S. coelicolor A3(2). It responds to the stringent culture density and timing of the transition phase by the quorum-sensing butanolide system and to the specific nutrient availability/uptake signals mediated by the global (pleiotropic) regulators; many of which are two-component signal transduction systems. The final effectors of this regulation cascade are predicted to be two cluster-situated Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory proteins (SARPs) putatively activating the expression of type I polyketide synthase (PKS I) genes. After its synthesis, unstable, colorless antibiotic coelimycin A reacts with specific compounds in the medium losing its antibacterial properties and giving rise to yellow coelimycins P1 and P2. Here we review the current knowledge on coelimycin synthesis regulation in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). We focus on the regulatory feedback loop which interconnects the butanolide system with other cpk cluster-situated regulators. We also present the effects exerted on cpk genes expression by the global, pleiotropic regulators, and the regulatory connections between cpk and other biosynthetic gene clusters.