Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.103, No.16, 6393-6405, 2019
Recent research advancements on regioselective nitrilase: fundamental and applicative aspects
Nitrilase-mediated biocatalysis reactions have been continuously arousing wide interests by scholars and entrepreneurs in organic synthesis over the past six decades. Since regioselective nitrilases could hydrolyze only one cyano group of dinitriles into corresponding cyanocarboxylic acids, which are virtually impossible by chemical hydrolysis and of interest for a variety of applications, it becomes particularly appealing to synthetic chemists. The aim of the current review is to summarize the recent advancements on regioselective nitrilases concerning their fundamental researches and applications in synthesis of a series of high-value fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Carbon chain lengths and substituent group positions of substrates are found to be two crucial factors in affecting regioselectivity of nitrilase. Practical applications of regioselective nitrilases in synthesis of 1,5-dimethyl-2-piperidone (1,5-DMPD), atorvastatin, gabapentin, (R)-baclofen, and (S)-pregabalin were systematically reviewed. Future perspectives clearly elucidating the mechanism of regioselectivity and further molecular modifications of regioselective nitrilases integrating within silico technology for industrial applications were discussed.