Solar Energy, Vol.181, 276-284, 2019
Semi-transparent photovoltaics using ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 absorber layers prepared by single-stage co-evaporation
Semi-transparent thin-film solar cells with ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGS) absorber layers were fabricated on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass substrates using a single-stage co-evaporation process. The effects of the deposition conditions, such as the absorber thickness, deposition temperature, and post-deposition treatment using NaF on the material properties of the CIGS films were evaluated. In addition, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and average visible transmission (AVT) in the wavelength range of 420-720 nm for semi-transparent CIGS solar cells using these absorber layers were systematically investigated. The AVT of the solar cells was directly dependent on the thickness of the CIGS absorber films. When the film thickness of the absorber layers increased from 300 nm to 950 nm, the AVT decreased gradually from 9.04% to 0.30%, while their PCE values did not show a clear dependence on the absorber thickness. Narrow columnar grains were observed in the microstructure of the ultra-thin CIGS absorber layers, irrespective of the film thickness and deposition temperature. Doping the ultra-thin CIGS absorber layers with Na after film deposition enhanced solar cell performance (the open circuit voltage (V-OC) and fill factor (FF) were improved). The enhanced cell performance was attributed to the lack of a resistive GaOx film at the CIGS/FTO interface and thermal damage to the FTO back contact. The PCE values of semi-transparent solar cells with ultra-thin CIGS absorber layers prepared under the optimal deposition conditions varied from 6.46% to 9.78% when the CIGS absorber thickness was varied from 200 nm to 300 nm, respectively, while the corresponding AVT values changed from 18.59% to 9.04%.