Process Safety and Environmental Protection, Vol.122, 48-57, 2019
Photodegradation of lignin from pulp and paper mill effluent using TiO2/PS composite under UV-LED radiation: Optimization, toxicity assessment and reusability study
In the present study, the photodegradation of lignin was studied using TiO2/Polystyrene composite under UV-LED irradiation in a batch-recirculated photoreactor as a supplementary treatment for pulp and paper industries. TiO2/PS composite was synthesized by the solvent-casting method and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX analysis. The 3-level, 3-factor Box-Behnken design was applied to study the effects of main operating parameters and optimization of process circumstances. Besides, COD reduction efficiency, toxicity assays, and reusability were also investigated. The predicted model had R-2 and R-adj(2) correlation coefficients of 0.97 and 0.99 respectively, which showed experimental results were very close to the predicted values. Furthermore, under the optimal conditions (reaction time = 72.5, volumetric flow rate = 230 mi./min and lignin = 51.8 mg/L) the lignin degradation efficiency was 93.98%. The maximum COD removal (89%) obtained by 250 mL/min volumetric flow rate and lignin concentration of 50 mg/L after 120 min reaction time. Bioassay using D. Magna exhibited that at the beginning of the process, the toxicity of solution increased but continuously decreasing after then to very low values achieved within 120 min of photodegradation. In addition, the reusability tests demonstrated that the TiO2/PS composite after 5 cycles has a good stability and photocatalytic activity. (C) 2018 Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.